LWD Geomechanics

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LWD Geomechanics Acoustic CrossWave

All drilling, completions, and production decisions can change formation stresses and affect well integrity, well performance, and ultimate recovery. An accurate geomechanical model helps avoid or mitigate costly problems while saving time, and improving performance over the life of the well.

Geomechanical information is critical to preventing formation damage that can later impact production, well integrity, and risk. Valuable data acquired using logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools makes it possible to improve predrill geomechanical estimates.


LWD Geomechanics PressureWave

The Weatherford portfolio of geomechanical services—acoustics, azimuthal resistivity, density, formation testing, and imaging—provides solutions to help avoid or mitigate potentially harmful changes in the mechanical state of the rock.

Using sensors capable of monitoring even the slightest alteration in the formation makeup, we can help protect borehole integrity. Our Wave series formation-evaluation tools and services complement our multisensor approach to LWD by providing accurate borehole and reservoir measurements that facilitate real-time drilling decisions.

The Weatherford LWD system provides industry-leading petrophysical measurements, including state-of-the-art, azimuthal-density imaging.

Additional tools and sensors include multi-frequency resistivity, thermal neutron-porosity, robust and reliable acoustics, and an industry-leading LWD spectral gamma ray.

LWD Geomechanics TVM

The Weatherford Wave series LWD tools deliver petrophysical measurements featuring industry-leading accuracy and borehole imaging with real-time and recorded modes for improved well placement, evaluation, and drilling―even in harsh environments.

Wave series sensors―GuideWave® azimuthal resistivity, CrossWave® azimuthal sonic, ShockWave® sonic, PressureWave™ formation tester, SineWave® microimager, and SpectralWave® spectral-azimuthal gamma ray―can be run in combination or with other LWD technologies.

Our true-vibration monitor (TVM™) is a downhole LWD sensor that makes high-resolution vibration measurements used to optimize downhole drilling conditions and prevent dangerous and costly drilling problems. It provides critical drilling-dynamics data in real time and recorded formats.
 


Weatherford geomechanics technology and services provide vital information for understanding the mechanical state of the rock as well as monitoring the drilling and production environment.

LWD Geomechanics PressureWave Graph
 

Available LWD Geomechanics Technologies

CrossWave®

Reliable 360° azimuthal imaging in challenging wells

The Weatherford CrossWave azimuthal sonic tool provides both total sonic measurements and 360° azimuthal sonic borehole images. As the drillstring rotates, the transmitter fires a sequence of acoustic waves into the formation. These waves are refracted back to the receivers and stored in 16 fixed orientation azimuthal bins. Processed in the bins, the waveforms yield azimuthally oriented borehole images of compressional and refracted shear images. The unique tool hardware―a directionally focused, high-output transmitter, a powerful attenuator section, and receivers isolated from the body of the collar―allow the CrossWave tool to provide accurate, reliable data in the harshest environments.

Geomechanic Applications

  • Formation mechanical properties and 360° rock mechanical properties images

  • (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, brittleness index)

  • Pore-pressure evaluation

  • Gas detection

  • 360° compressional and shear slowness borehole images

  • 360° anisotropy images

SineWave®

360-borehole microimaging while drilling

The Weatherford logging-while-drilling (LWD) SineWave microimager provides high-resolution borehole images (comparable to wireline microresistivity sensors) while drilling in a wide range of water-based mud conditions. High-resolution SineWave images can reveal natural and induced fractures, faults, vugs, and fine-scale bedding features to provide detailed structural and stratigraphic geological information. Advantages of the SineWave microimager include full 360-degree borehole coverage and real-time images for proactive geosteering and early formation evaluation.

Geomechanical Applications

  • Geomechanical and wellbore-stability information

  • Identification of natural and drilling-induced fractures

  • Tectonic stress interpretation from fracture orientation

  • Determination of the location and orientation of faults

  • Structural-dip information

  • Stratigraphic dip and facies characterization

RAT

LWD temperature monitoring in challenging wells

The RAT (rapid annular temperature) sensor monitors LWD temperatures while in contact with the annular drilling fluid and is an integral part of the hostile-environment-logging HEL (hostile-environment-logging), LWD logging suite. The RAT sensor samples as fast as once per second to capture even slight variations in annular temperature. The RAT sensor response was honed through extensive temperature characterization testing. The RAT has proven superior in temperature response versus an insert based temperature sensor by more closely representing the behavior of a highly accurate external thermocouple sensor. The RAT sensor response can be used to confirm additional sensor measurements in predicting wellbore influx of both gas and liquid. This information can be plotted versus time or depth for flexibility in analyzing drilling and non-drilling events.

Applications

  • Provides critical downhole fluid information in offshore/deepwater wells where early influx detection can be critical.

BAP

Bore and annular pressure measurements in challenging wells

The BAP (bore/annular pressure) sensor is an integral part of the HEL measurement-while-drilling (MWD) system using highly accurate quartz transducers to monitor downhole well conditions for early indications of drilling problems. The BAP sensor measures bore and annular pressure as well as downhole temperature while drilling, wiping, or tripping out of hole. The BAP sensor information may be presented in pressure units or equivalent circulating density (ECD) to optimize hole cleaning, control surge and swab, and minimize lost circulation. Data may be plotted vs. depth or time. The BAP sensor can also be run in underbalanced applications or in holes with no mud returns using the EMpulse™-electromagnetic (EM-) MWD system for the HEL-MWD system. Quartz gauges measure pressure ±7.5 psi (0.052 MPa) at 1 psi resolution, allowing for an accurate ECD measurement. The BAP will operate up to 30,000 psi and 150°C (180°C survival).

Geomechanics Applications

  • Challenging drilling environments where a narrow window exists between pore pressure and formation-fracture pressure

  • Drilling environments with or without mud returns

  • Optimizing motor efficiency

  • Optimizing mud program

PressureWave

Mission-critical formation pressure and fluid-mobility information in challenging wells

The Weatherford PressureWave formation tester provides direct measurement of the formation pore pressure. When used with the HEL-LWD suite, the PressureWave formation tester also delivers mission-critical formation pressure and fluid-mobility information, allowing safer drilling and a more comprehensive evaluation program. The tool takes fast, reliable formation pressure measurements with pumps either on or off. While testing with pumps on, data can be transmitted as fast as one pressure measurement every four seconds with 1/2-psi resolution. High-resolution 32‑bit pressures are recorded at five samples per second into memory. This data enables clients to make informed decisions about the reservoir and formation potential early in the life of the well and to reduce drilling risk with direct measurement of pore pressure.

Geomechanics Applications

  • Providing direct measurement of pore pressure in real time

  • Developing and updating reservoir models while drilling

TVM

Real-time downhole dynamics data for optimized drilling

The Weatherford TVM (true-vibration monitor) sensor is a downhole LWD sensor that provides critical drilling-dynamics information in both real-time and recorded formats. The sensor provides feedback for optimization of downhole drilling conditions which may potentially prevent dangerous and costly drilling problems. The TVM sensor also records high-resolution, downhole-drilling data, which allows for detailed post-run analysis. Six orthogonally arranged accelerometers enable the TVM sensor to make high-resolution vibration measurements in all three axes, in both high and low vibration environments. In addition, the sensor is equipped with one magnetometer that can measure downhole speed and stick-slip up to 356°F (180°C). The TVM sensor can provide a maximum amount of critical real-time data with a minimal effect on transmission bandwidth and real-time logging operations. To optimize its data-gathering capabilities, the sensor uses wellsite-programmable data-triggers to signal when vibration data should be transmitted to surface. Combining downhole data from the TVM sensor with data gathered at surface allows the user to take immediate remedial actions to improve overall drilling operations, perform an in-depth analysis of drilling practices, and obtain a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms contributing to downhole vibration.

Geomechanics Applications

  • Drilling optimization

  • Real-time vibration monitoring for improved reliability

  • Improved drilling rate of penetration (ROP)

Visean information service

Web-based, real-time logging-while-drilling data

Weatherford Visean information service delivers critical LWD wellsite data over the Internet in real time, which streamlines information flow and enables clients to more effectively leverage their highly skilled personnel. The service integrates a suite of powerful tools to support visualization, printing, export, and real-time reporting of all critical mud-logging and electronic-drilling-recorder data.

Geosteering Applications

  • Remote, real-time monitoring of LWD data

  • Support for mud-logging and drilling-recorder data

  • Management of drilling-project-related documents and reports