LWD Imaging

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LWD Petrophysics SineWave

Complex reservoirs call for specialized tools. Weatherford drilling-services imaging solutions give a complete picture of the downhole environment, from natural fracture analysis to anisotropy aiding in reservoir characterization and completion optimization.

Image data from gamma ray, resistivity, microimaging, acoustic, and density sensors are critical for accurate wellbore placement, stability models and completion design.


LWD Geomechanics Acoustic CrossWave

The extensive LWD-imaging capabilities and services of Weatherford use real-time and recorded data to fully characterize the target formation from small-scale fractures to analyzing the depositional environment.

The SineWave® microimager shows high-resolution borehole images in water-based drilling fluids. With real-time images, structural dips in thin, laminated formations guide the drill bit to the correct target while recorded data provides detailed analysis of natural fractures, sand counting, and secondary porosity estimation. The SpectralWave® spectral-azimuthal gamma ray can detect bed boundaries and determine dips, which enable geosteering engineers to stay in zone through long lateral sections. Azimuthal-density measurements provide 360-degree borehole images of Rhob or Pe, further assisting in petrophysical interpretation and geosteering.

The CrossWave® azimuthal-acoustic tool is an industry-leading sensor that provides both total sonic measurements and azimuthal, 360-degree, sonic-borehole images.

The CrossWave tool provides azimuthally focused measurements of compressional and shear-wave velocities. These readings allow three-dimensional characterization of geomechanical properties (Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, etc.) along the length of the horizontal wellbore in mechanically anisotropic shale reservoirs. This allows the operator to select the best areas for fracture-stage placement while optimizing stimulation design and execution.


Weatherford LWD-imaging technologies help you better understand the reservoir and quickly react to the drilling environment, while creating the borehole. This provides greater control when attempting to reach a specific target for enhanced production.

Drilling Services Imaging R&D
 

Available Imaging Technologies:

Sinewave

The Weatherford LWD SineWave microimager provides high-resolution borehole images (comparable to wireline microresistivity sensors) while drilling in a wide range of water-based mud conditions.

High-resolution SineWave images can reveal natural and induced fractures, faults, vugs, and fine-scale bedding features to provide detailed structural and stratigraphic geological information. Advantages of the SineWave microimager include full 360-degree borehole coverage and realtime images for proactive geosteering and early formation evaluation.

Imaging Applications:

  • Determination of the location and orientation of faults
  • Evaluation of thinly-bedded formations
  • Structural-dip information
  • Stratigraphic dip and facies characterization


Applications Features, Advantages, and Benefits:

  • Image resolution equivalent to that of wireline microresistivity imagers
  • Image quality virtually unaffected by stick/slip BHA motion
  • 128-bin recorded azimuthal image, with 360-degree full-wellbore coverage
  • 16-, 32-, or 64-bin real-time images
  • Rapid acquisition electronics that acquire 128-bin, 360-degree scans as fast as every 1 second for high-resolution imaging at fast drilling rates
  • The 0.20-in. and 0.50-in., diameter-focused measurement electrodes that provide high‑resolution images under a wide range of mud and formation resistivity values and borehole conditions
  • Replaceable stabilizers that minimize standoff and optimize the measurement for various bit sizes

SpectralWave

Weatherford’s SpectralWave spectral azimuthal gamma ray sensor provides real-time spectral gamma ray data (K, U, Th), azimuthal gamma ray borehole images, and precise total gamma ray information while drilling.

The SpectralWave sensor is particularly valuable in shale reservoir development, where the real-time borehole images facilitate geosteering and provide formation structural information. The spectral gamma ray data provide interpretation of the shale reservoir’s organic richness and clay content. This single LWD tool delivers superior value for unconventional reservoir well placement and evaluation.

Imaging Applications:

  • Geosteering from high-quality, real-time, up-down 4 quadrant, or 16-bin gamma ray borehole images. Real-time images not only provide formation dip information, but also show the relative angle between the wellbore and bedding planes to indicate whether the horizontal wellbore is drilling stratigraphically up or downEvaluation of shale organic content from relationships between uranium and Total Organic Carbon (TOC).
  • Accurate well-to-well correlation from high-precision total gamma ray measurement.

AZD

The Weatherford Drilling Services' Azimuthal Density sensor  (AZD) provides highly accurate bulk density and standoff images in real-time and recorded operations for detailed geosteering performance.

AZD can provide all measurements azimuthally – 16 sectors for both realtime and recorded  modes. The AZD uses a two axis magnetometer which synchronises and orients itself to the directional sensor at each connection to azimuthally bin the density data, thereby generating bulk density and standoff images.  For the realtime azimuthal data, the AZD groups the 16 sectors into 4 quadrants and can provide a quadrant density image in realtime as well as up, down, left and right bulk density measurements. 

Imaging Applications:

 

  • Real-time and Recorded Rhob and Standoff images
  • Images provided are 16 sectors for both realtime and recorded modes.

The NDT will operate up to 30,000 psi and 150°C (180°C survival.)

CrossWave

The Weatherford CrossWave azimuthal sonic tool provides both total sonic measurements and azimuthal 360° sonic borehole images. As the drillstring rotates, the transmitter fires a sequence of acoustic waves into the formation.
These waves are refracted back to the receivers and stored in 16 fixedorientation azimuthal bins. Processed in the bins, the waveforms yield azimuthally oriented borehole images of compressional and refracted shear images. The unique tool hardware―a directionally focused, high-output transmitter, a very effective attenuator section, and receivers isolated from
the body of the collar―allow the CrossWave tool to provide accurate, reliable data in the harshest environments.

Imaging Applications:

  • Pore-pressure evaluation
  • 360° compressional and shear slowness borehole images
  • 360° anisotropy images

Features, Advantages, and Benefits:

  • Azimuthal sonic logging in horizontal reservoirs, using LWD technology
  • Resolving the slow and fast shear, in anisotropic formations
  • Providing 360° geomechanical properties in nonhomogeneous rocks
  • Efficient fracture design, based on the azimuthal geomechanical data