The history of float equipment began in 1907, with the development by R.C. Baker of a casing shoe that allowed casing to be cemented in wells. Since that time, major changes in cementing techniques and equipment have taken place to address more challenging applications. This paper reviews the progress of float equipment design over the years and discusses the various failure modes that have been encountered and addressed.
As the drilling and casing installation has grown in reach and design, so the level of sophistication of float equipment and operational techniques has developed and inherent problems have been encountered, identified and addressed. The development of the API Specification 10F will enable operators to better understand the design and performance of float equipment and make choices in design that are best suited to the application being planned. It is of vital importance that operators understand the possible failure modes and the choices available in float equipment valve design that are best suited to their application. There is quite often a tendency to underestimate the importance of choosing the right equipment for the application, and this will be addressed in this paper. The authors will also provide a detailed evaluation of the development, design, performance and suitability of the equipment choices that are available. They will review the industry standards that are applicable to float equipment, the various failure modes that can occur, identify the causes and discuss how to anticipate and address them. Navigating the various features associated with seeming simple float equipment can significantly reduce operational cost.